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Five Body Structures and Sense Organs and Orifices


The five body structures are the skin, muscles, tendons, bones and vessels. The Five Body Structures



The sense organs are the ears, eyes, mouth, nose and tongue, and the orifices are the ears, eyes, mouth, nose and tongue, and the external genitals and anus.
The body structure and orifices are linked with the zang and fu organs by meridians and collaterals, and physiopathologically, they are closely related.  Other than their own functions they mainly depend on the physiological functions of the zang-fu organs and meridians which provide them with essence, blood, qi and body fluids to nourish them.  They have specially related to the five zang organs.  Thus, pathological changes of the zang-fu organs and meridians reflect on the corresponding body structures and orifices.


The function of the skin is to protect the body against external pathogens, excrete sweat, adjust body temperature and regulate respiration.  The skin is closely related to the lung.  When they invade the body, usually the exogenous pathogenic factors attack the skin first and then affect the lung.





Lying beneath the skin and adhering to the skeleton, the muscles have the functions of protecting the internal organs against external pathogenic factors.  The texture of the muscles is called muscular striae.  The interspaces or depressions at the junction of muscles are the place where blood and qi converge, and they are also the place of points.  Moreover, muscles have a close relationship with the spleen.  On the one hand, the spleen transforms food into refined substances to nourish the muscles, and on the other hand, muscular movement can promote the transportation and transformation of the spleen.


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