>> Medical Care >> How to Make Diagnosis >> Four Diagnostic Methods
Listening and Smelling
Listening and smelling are the diagnostic method of detecting the clinical status of a patient by listening to his sound and smelling the odor of his secretion and excretion.


Listening includes listening to the voice, breath, coughing, hiccupping and belching.
Smelling includes smelling the odor from the body and the odor in a ward.  The odour permeating the ward is from the body and excreta.  For example, mouldy odor in a ward comes from patients with pestilence.  Foul smell like the odor of rotten apples suggests diabetes mellitus.



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