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Song and Jin Dynasties (960~1368): Standardization and Prosperity of Acupuncture and Moxibustion

In the Song Dynasty (960~1279) acupuncture and moxibustion developed toward a standardized orientation, and in this period a national standard of meridians and points was first formulated in Chinese history.  It unified, location of points and indications of points, providing a guidance to acupuncture education and clinical practice.

Wang Weiyi (987~1067) lived in the Song Dynasty(960~1279). 

His contributions to acupuncture are as follows:

He compiled the book of Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing(the Bronze Figure of Meridians and Points)( 3 volumes) , in which he standardized the traveling course of the twelve regular meridians and the Governor Vessel and Conception Vessel and the points along the meridians.
Wang Weiyi cast two human-sized bronze figures of meridians and points in 1027.  Zang-fu organs were put inside the figure and on the surface there were 354 points, in which mercury was infused and the figure was sealed With wax.  It was used for examination of the acupuncture students.  On the question of the teacher the student who took the examination inserted the needle into the point.  If he needled the point accurately , mercury would flow out, otherwise needles would not get in.  On the inspiration of this many bronze figures were cast in later times.  The creation of the bronze figure of meridians and points has accelerated the  advance of acupuncture practice and education. 


Portrait of Wang Weiyi, from Zhong Guo Li Dai Ming Yi Tu Zhuan(Chinese Noted Physicians’ Portrait and Biography thorughout Ages)




Jing Jin Da Ding Ben Xin Kan Bu Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing (The Illustrated Annotated Manual of Points on a Bronze Figure), a photo-offset copy published by Yu Hai Tang in the end of the Qing Dynasty 
Size: 18.5×24.2cm



 Fragmentary rubbings (1~6) of Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing (The Newly Cast Illustrated Manual of Points of a Bronze Figure), kept in the Chinese Acupuncture Museum


 Rubbings of Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing (The Illustrated Manual of Points on A Bronze Figure), sculptured in the Ming Dynasty, kept in the Archives and Mansolea Department of the Imperial hausehold Agency,Japan


Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing (The Illustrated Manual of Points on a Bronze Figure)  (5 volumes), a block-printed edition of the Yuan Dynasty, kept in the Taiwan National Central Library




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